2022 Poster Presentations

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Ashley Alvarado, California Baptist University

Jessica McCallum, California Baptist University

John Park, California Baptist University

A Preliminary Pilot Study to Examine the Efficacy of a Spanish Primer to Facilitate Communication Between Non-English Speaking Patients and English Speaking Healthcare Providers at Loma Linda University Medical Center

Abstract: With the rapid growth of the Latino population in the US, studies document the importance of addressing the cultural and language barriers that may exist between the patient and healthcare providers. To address this concern, this pilot study examines the efficacy of a 10-page Spanish primer (SP) in addressing communication barriers that may exist between non-English speaking patients and the English-speaking healthcare providers. Using the randomized clinical trial, data were collected from the healthcare providers (N = 14), and patients (N = 40) completed a short questionnaire to assess their satisfaction level of the treatment they received. Regression analysis revealed significance in the healthcare providers’ confidence in meeting the needs and concerns of the patients (p < .05). Further exploration of the results are detailed, as well as clinical implications and future research.

Laura Aquije, Alliant International University

A Critical Review of Familismo and its Relation to Psychological and Behavioral Outcomes Among the Latinx Population

Abstract: Working with the Latinx population requires researchers to understand the cultural values that strongly impact an individual's psychological health and development. Familismo is a core cultural value with two primary dimensions: attitudinal familismo are the beliefs about the expectations and obligations of supporting the needs and desires of the family over the individuals, and behavioral familismo are the actions of those beliefs. Most research disproportionately examined attitudinal familismo, limiting our understanding of how behavioral familismo impacts relevant variables. The purpose of this review was to examine existing studies on behavioral familismo among Latinxs to evaluate the effects of behavioral manifestations and critique the conceptualization and measurement. Results indicate the relationship of behavioral familismo between Latinx's development, mental health outcomes, and help-seeking behaviors and its implications of the variability in the conceptualization. The review highlights the importance of expanding research on behavioral aspects and using consistent measurements to better understand familismo.

Raymundo Cervantes, California State University

Isabel D. Munoz, California State University

Adriana Cuello, Tecnológico de Monterrey

Santiago Espinosa, Tecnológico de Monterrey

Ana Paula Peña Quiñones, Tecnológico de Monterrey

Yvette De Jesus, California State University

Jasman Sidhu, California State University

The Relationship between Gender and Depression in a Mexican Population CNT Performance

Abstract: We examined gender and depression differences in Mexicans residing in Mexico on the Cordoba Naming Test (CNT). The sample consisted of 105 males [77 with normal symptoms of depression (NSD) & 28 abnormal symptoms of depression (ASD)] and 132 females [87 NSD & 45 ASD]. A 2x2 ANCOVA was used to evaluate main effects and the interaction between gender and depression on the CNT. We found that the male group outperformed the female group on the CNT, p<.05, ηp²=.13. Next, we also found that NSD group outperformed the ASD group on the CNT, p<.05, ηp²=.02. Finally, no significant interactions emerged. As expected, the male group and NSD group outperform their counterparts on the CNT. Our data suggests no relationship between gender and depression on the CNT in a Mexicans residing in Mexico. Future studies should examine if other factors can cause an interaction on CNT performance in a Mexican population.

Ying-An Chi, Alliant International University

Acculturation, Self-Concept, and Well-being Among Immigrants of Chinese Descent

Abstract: Immigration experiences could lead to changes in how people perceive and identify themselves. In Chinese culture, people tend to develop an interdependent self-construal, whereas mainstream American culture commonly encourages the development of an independent self-construal. Based on Carl Rogers's self-concept theory, psychological distress often results from experiencing discrepancies between one's ideal and actual selves, such that the larger the self-discrepancy, the higher the psychological distress they will experience. Yet, for individuals that value interdependent self-construal, adjusting their roles to meet societal expectations and maintain social harmony is particularly important. Therefore, self-discrepancies might serve a different function for immigrants of Chinese descent, particularly among those who are less acculturated. Also, the effects of self-discrepancy on psychological distress may be weaker among Chinese immigrants who are less acculturated to European American culture due to the value of interdependent self-construal and adjusting one's role to maintain group harmony in Chinese culture.

Adriana Cuello, Tecnológico de Monterrey

Isabel Munoz, California State University

Raymundo Cervantes, California State University

Santiago Espinoza, Tecnológico de Monterrey

Ana Paula Pena, Tecnológico de Monterrey

Yvette De Jesus, California State University

Jasman Sidhu, California State University

The Impact of Anxiety on Generation Z Mexican Cordoba Naming Test Performance

Abstract: We evaluated adult Generation Z (born between 1998-2003) Mexicans residing in Mexico on symptoms of anxiety on their Cordoba Naming Test (CNT) performance. The sample consisted of 18 participants with normal symptoms of anxiety (NSA), 16 participants with borderline abnormal symptoms of anxiety (BASA), and 19 participants with abnormal symptoms of anxiety (ASA). All the participants completed the CNT and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in English, which was used to examine anxiety levels. An ANCOVA was utilized to evaluate anxiety groups' performance on the CNT. We found significant differences between anxiety groups on the CNT, p<.05, ηp²=.15. Post-hoc tests revealed that the NSA group outperformed the ASA group on the CNT. Our data suggests that higher levels of anxiety impact Generation Z individuals' CNT performance. Future studies with bigger sample sizes should examine if anxiety impacts Generation Z Mexicans residing in Mexico CNT performance in Spanish.

Yvette De Jesus, California State University

Raymundo Cervantes, California State University

Jasman Sidhu, California State University

Adriana Cuello, Tecnológico de Monterrey

Santiago Espinoza, Tecnológico de Monterrey

Ana Paula Pena, Tecnológico de Monterrey

Isabel Munoz, California State University

Examining the Cordoba Naming Test in an Elderly Latinx Population

Abstract: We examined aging Latinx gender differences on the Cordoba Naming Test (CNT). It was expected that males would outperform females on the CNT. The sample consisted of 16 male and 23 female participants that completed the CNT in Spanish. Independent sample T-tests were used to evaluate CNT performance. Gender groups were well demographically matched (i.e., age & years of education completed). We found that the male participants outperformed the female participants on the CNT, p<.05, ηp²=.12. As expected, the male participants outperformed the female participants on the CNT. Previous research shows that males outperform females on lexical retrieval tasks (e.g., Boston Naming Test). To my knowledge, this is the first study to examine Latinx gender differences in an aging population on the CNT. Future studies may want to evaluate if Latinx gender differences exist between persons with and without dementia on the CNT.

Taralyn De Leeuw, California Baptist University

John Park, California Baptist University

Comparison of Neurocognitive Assessment Measures for the Treatment of COVID-19

Abstract: The current study documents the impact of COVID-19 “brain fog” on cognitive functioning in adults who have been infected by COVID-19. In collaboration with RIID Medical Group and UCI Medical Center, we seek to conduct a comparative analysis between individuals who have been infected by COVID-19 and individuals who have not been affected by this virus. The first arm of the study will look at between-group differences of cognitive functioning as measured by Cognivue Clarity (CC), Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and/or Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). The second arm of the study will look at correlations between scores on the MMSE and MOCA and the CC digital assessment. As a preliminary longitudinal pilot study, subjects will be assessed for a 24-month period in 3-month intervals. Statistical analyses and the results of the study will be further discussed, as well as clinical implications and recommendations for future research.

Jonathan Drummond, University of Kentucky

Exploring the Therapeutic Value of Martial Arts and Other Sequenced Physical Activity for Those with Neurodevelopmental and Related Disabilities

Abstract: Parents, trainers, and scholars have reported those with disabilities practicing martial arts show improvement beyond physical fitness. Improvement in executive function likely mediates the relationship between exercise and psychological improvement. Recently, others have noted specific psychological benefits of exercise on executive function in healthy populations that align with the most pronounced executive function deficits in those with neurodevelopmental disabilities. Per our team’s work to establish national standards with the Adaptive Martial Arts Association, we hypothesize that the optimal exercise of therapeutic value for those with neurodevelopmental disabilities, as mediated by improvements in executive function, will be exercise characterized by sequential patterns and ordered protocols—sequenced physical activity. We suggest the most therapeutic activities will be martial arts/kata, dance, and similar activities. Our critical literature review points the way to future research into these types of physical activities to rigorously assess their therapeutic value.

Heather Johnson, Cal State Long Beach

Lisa Jennings, Cal State Long Beach

Revisiting the Family First Prevention Services Act of 2018 (FFPSA): Strengthening Families and Building Connections

Abstract: The Family First Prevention Services Act of 2018 is the largest change to child welfare funding in more than 40 years. The Act provides states with matching federal funds for evidence-based prevention programs for substance use and mental health treatment and parent training programs aimed at reducing separation of children at risk of maltreatment from their parents, a burden that currently falls disproportionately on BIPOC and LGBTQ children. However, the bill has no provisions requiring provision of prevention services or mandating equity in service provision. This poster explores the way FFPSA falls short in its attempt to prevent and ameliorate loss and trauma experienced by children separated by their parents, in particular lack of funding to ensure full implementation and failure to consider needs of oppressed groups for culturally appropriate evidence-based practices.

Yan Kuang, Oakland University School of Medicine

Jewel Cannon, Oakland University School of Medicine

A Novel Model that Differentiates Gratitude and Appreciation and Guides Instrument Development to Assess Levels of Both

Abstract: It is well-known that oxytocin has an anti-stress effect. To explore whether gratitude and appreciation trigger oxytocin release in the human body as some psychologists believe, gratitude and appreciation need to be clearly defined and assessed separately for the purpose of research. However, the two words are used interchangeably by many people even though they are differentiated by psychologists. This inconsistency results from inconsistency in the definitions of emotions and feelings. In this presentation, we share a novel conceptual model that defines and differentiates gratitude and appreciation according to the perspectives of neuroscientists about emotions and feelings and illustrates the relationship between gratitude and appreciation. This model will guide the development of instruments that assess the levels of gratitude and appreciation of research subjects and of a mindful training program that promotes gratitude and appreciation practices which can be used in future studies to examine whether they trigger oxytocin release.

Sangbok Lee, Korea Positive Psychology Institute, Seoul, South Korea

Minseo Kim, Korea Positive Psychology Institute, Seoul, South Korea

Artistic and Cognitive Development Processes in Children's Drawings: A Case Study

Abstract: The collections of child's diary drawings were analyzed from the perspectives on scientific analogies(D. Gentner, 1982, 1983), cognitive similarity (Tversky, 1977), case-based scripts (Schank, 1982), and metaphorical categorization (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980). The data were the second author's diaries and drawings from the first to the sixth grades. Daily diary represents a child's activities, thoughts, emotions or interpersonal interactions in the living context; dairy drawings artistically represent a child's ecological and cognitive domains of daily activities. During the first grade, the child's drawings imply simple shapes: lines, circles, triangles, rectangles or squares. They are cartoonist styles, awkward, and unbalanced. The drawings, during the third grade, demonstrate more natural, realistic, and artistically form arts. During the 4th to 6th grades, the drawings illustrate more artistic skill sets, light and dark balance and shading, water coloring, analogical mappings, and artistic sequences.

Jian Li, Kent State University

Phillip D. Rumrill, Jr., University of Kentucky

Han Zhang, University of Wisconsin

Effects of Postsecondary Education on Employment Outcomes of Youth with Specific Learning Disabilities: A Propensity Score Matching Approach

Abstract: This study examined whether receiving the vocational rehabilitation services of four-year college or university training would lead to different employment outcomes for young adults with specific learning disabilities (SLD). Using the Rehabilitation Services Administration (RSA)-911 data, the propensity score matching technique was employed to create a comparison group of youth adults with SLD who did not receive the training. The quasi-experimental design investigated the group differences in the employment outcomes. Findings revealed that the recipient group of the training (N = 392) were more likely to join the competitive employment at the exit of the VR program than the comparison group (N = 392); those in the recipient group who had secured a competitive employment at the exit also had a significantly higher hourly wage and weekly working hours than their counterparts in the comparison group. Implications for state vocational rehabilitation counselors are also discussed.

Nahlah Mandurah, University of Wisconsin

Validating the Enright Forgiveness Inventory - 30 in Saudi Arabia

Abstract: The Enright Forgiveness Inventory short version (EFI-30) is one of the most trusted measures that has been used in many forgiveness studies. Across the world, researchers have been testing the reliability and validity of the EFI-30 to make it available for researchers and mental health professionals to use. The main purpose of this study is to validate the EFI-30 and measures of anger, anxiety, and depression with 247 adults from Saudi Arabia. The analyses show that the EFI-30 is reliable and valid in the Saudi context with high degree of internal consistency (α= 0.97 across the 30 items) and high correlation between the three subscales and the EFI-30 with the correlation coefficients ranging from 0.94 to 0.90. The qualitative data from this study allowed for a brief analysis of the most reported transgressions.

Carolina Maravilla, Alliant International University

Psychological Distress Based on Level of Self-Efficacy in Latinx College Students

Abstract: College performance may cause distress for Latinx college students as a majority are first-generation college students (FGCS) and pursue higher education for more opportunities. They may struggle with self-esteem and competency issues in comparison to their peers in predominately White institutions leading to lower levels of academic self-efficacy. Imposter syndrome can affect their levels of anxiety and depression based on their level of self-efficacy. As Latinx students are prone to discrimination based on their racial and/or ethnic identity, their lack of belonging can induce stress that can affect their performance. They may feel more pressure to succeed from their families, especially if they are FGCS. The pressure to succeed can induce additional psychological distress. Attempting the college experience without guidance can affect how prepared they feel to perform academically. The goal of this presentation is to bring awareness to the unique challenges Latinx college students are presented with based on their intersectional identities in their institutions.

Michaela Moss, PGSP Stanford Psy.D Consortium

Jennifer Stephens, PGSP Stanford Psy.D Consortium

The Relationship Between Expectations of Treatment Effectiveness and Treatment Satisfaction After Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia

Abstract: Here we test the hypothesis that (1) greater expectancy of treatment effectiveness would be negatively correlated with insomnia symptom severity after treatment and (2) greater expectancy of treatment effectiveness would be positively correlated with treatment satisfaction following six sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I). These hypotheses were tested as a secondary data analysis focusing on 44 older adults with insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index scores >10) who were randomized to the CBT-I arm of a larger (n=128) randomized clinical which examined behavioral treatments for insomnia. Supporting the first hypothesis, Pearson’s correlation analyses revealed a significant negative association between treatment expectancy and insomnia severity scores at study-end (r = - 0.39, p = 0.01). However, correlation analyses did not support an association between treatment effectiveness and treatment satisfaction (r = -0.18, p = 0.25). Expectations of treatment effectiveness may impact reduction of insomnia symptoms, but not treatment satisfaction at treatment-end.

Dinorah Nieves, Rocky Mountain College of Art and Design

Toward A New Measure Of Social Consciousness

Abstract: While sociological knowledge has the benefit of improving the social consciousness of its learners, there appears to be no commonly used assessment for measuring the impact of sociological knowledge on the social consciousness of sociological learners. This study proposes a tool for measuring such growth in perspective: The Social Consciousness Self-Assessment Questionnaire (SCSAQ). In a pilot study, the author has adapted Spitzberg & Cupach’s (1989) "Interpersonal Communication Competence" Self-Assessment to explore concepts such as compassion, humility, cultural competence, accountability, and other components of social consciousness to create an inventory that can be used to gather self-assessments around social consciousness. In preliminary piloting with eighteen students of sociology, the assessment proved a valuable pre/post measurement, yielding results consistent with student narratives and confirming an increase in social consciousness after completing an “Introduction to Sociology” course. The measure continues to be piloted.

Ana Paula Pena Quiñones, Tecnológico de Monterrey

Isabel D. Munoz, California State University

Raymundo Cervantes, California State University

Adriana Cuello, Tecnológico de Monterrey

Santiago Espinoza, Tecnológico de Monterrey

Yvette De Jesus, California State University

Jasman Sidhu, California State University

Evaluating the Cordoba Naming Test and Perceived Workload Across Diverse Ethnic Groups

Abstract: The Cordoba Naming Test (CNT) is a new confrontation naming test for Spanish speakers. The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship of perceived workload in three ethnic groups on the CNT performance. Past research has shown that ethnic groups perform worse compared to Caucasians (Razani 2007). The sample consisted of 22 Caucasians, 18 African Americans, and 22 Asians. We predicted that the Caucasian group would outperform and report lower perceived performance. We found that the Caucasian group outperformed the African American group on the CNT. Furthermore, we found the African-American group reported higher effort and mental demand levels on the CNT compared to the Caucasian group. Lastly, we found that the African American group reported higher physical demand on the CNT compared to both the Caucasian and Asian groups. As expected, the Caucasian group outperformed the African American group on the CNT.

Scott Reid, Thomas Nelson Community College

The Role Identity Self Configuration of Psychological Prominence

Abstract: This research builds on the work of Stryker and Serpe (1994) and facilitates the study of identity from a theoretical perspective within sociological social psychology termed identity theory (eg., Burke and Reitzes 1991; Callero 1985; Stryker 1968, 1980). The research serves the advancement of identity theory by conducting the first examination of the “prominence” (McCall and Simmons 1978) hierarchical self-ordering within the theoretical context. Conferred is prominence’s fit as a mediating variable between varieties of commitment and role behavior outcomes. Prominence is deliberated as a potentially viable hierarchical self-ordering and differentiated from two neighboring conceptualizations, identity salience (Stryker 1968, 1980) and psychological centrality (Rosenberg 1979). The psychometric properties of two measures of role-identity prominence are compiled and evaluated based on a sample of female exotic dancers. Analytic prominence is measured via an eighteen-item Likert scale (alpha = .9082) created using face validity and confirmatory factor analysis. Global prominence is measured by the Thurstone Paired Comparison procedure wherein distinct role-identities are rated against each other. Three hypotheses concerning the psychometrics of the prominence scales and how each role-identity measure is linked to commitment and time in role are examined: (1) the prominence measures are reliable and valid; (2) A - the higher the affective commitment, the higher the prominence of the dancer identity; B - the higher the interactional commitment, the higher the prominence of the dancer identity; (3) the higher the prominence of the dancer identity, the more probable the occurrence of behavior corresponding to the role. Provided are itemized assessments of the relative strengths and weaknesses of the study and a deliberation of the contributions to identity theory. Findings are evaluated relative to identity theory studies adopting congruent measures of the major study variables. Lastly, suggestions are offered for the direction of future research examining alternative, hierarchical self conceptualizations and their relative fit in identity theory.

Jill Salisbury-Glennon, Auburn University

Paris Strom, Auburn University

Pre-Service Teachers’ Service Learning Experiences Across Four COVID-19 Pandemic Semesters

Abstract: During the Spring of 2020, colleges and universities around the world closed due to the unprecedented COVID-19 global pandemic. There remains a paucity of research into the effects of this COVID-19 global pandemic on college students’ learning and instruction. Specifically, the present study sought to investigate the effects of the COVID-19 global pandemic on preservice teachers’ Service Learning experiences. In this study, a content analysis was conducted using pre-service teachers’ Service Learning Journal entries across four semesters during the COVID-19 global pandemic. Results suggested that while pre-service teachers preferred the classroom-based, real-world authentic Service Learning settings, they did also find some of the alternative Service Learning activities to be beneficial as well. It is suggested here that perhaps a combination of both types of Service Learning experiences may be helpful and that additional research is needed into the effects of the COVID-19 global pandemic on pre-service teachers’ Service Learning experiences.

Randy Seevers, University of Houston Clear Lake

The Use of a Student Self-Reflection Guide to Improve Understanding of Course Assignments

Abstract: This session addresses practices that help faculty facilitate pre-service teachers’ understanding of class assignments. Twenty-four teacher candidates enrolled in an undergraduate special education course were given a reflection guide related to major course assignments. The primary purpose of the reflective guide was to prompt the teacher candidates to critically reflect upon the assignment directions to ensure that candidates had good comprehension and understanding of the final projects due at the end of the semester. The preliminary results from the student self-reflection guide were overall quite positive and appeared to be viewed by the pre-service teacher candidates as beneficial. That is, 20 out of 24 students indicated that 1) the purpose of the assignment was clear, 2) the connection between the assignment and course learning objectives was clear, and 3) they understood each step and could successfully complete the assignment without further explanation.

Douglas Sperry, Saint Mary-of-the-Woods College

Sydney McCammon, Saint Mary-of-the-Woods College

Linda Sperry, Indiana State University

Early Development of Narrative Skills Revisited

Abstract: Verbatim transcripts of naturalistic conversations between fifteen 24-42-month-old European American children and their families were analyzed for evidence of episodes of narrative-like talk. An episode of narrative-like talk was defined as contiguous utterances by the child that included at least one event and one additional utterance displaced either temporally or fictionally form the here-and-now. Episodes were then analyzed in terms of the numbers of events, states, and goals they contained (structure), and the semantic-syntactic content included by the child in their telling (complexity).

Results indicated that the storytelling of these toddlers resembled that described in earlier work on similarly aged African American toddlers. Overall, there were slight differences between the groups in terms of proportion of temporally and fictionally displaced narrations, reflecting cultural preferences; but no differences in terms of overall structure and complexity, reflecting age-graded normative practices.

Paul Stock, University of Mary Hardin-Baylor

The Pareto Principle and Church Participation

Abstract: The Pareto Principle states that 80% of results come from 20% of causes. We surveyed Christian churches in Texas to ask if their members' participation in church activities followed the Pareto Principle in which 20% of members account for 80% of church participation. Of 637 churches surveyed, 219 responded (34% response rate). The research found that 74% of the churches saw participation follow the Pareto Principle. When church leaders were asked if they should focus attention on the 20% of members who participate, 92% responded 'No'. Of those surveyed, 58% believed all church members need their attention, and 42% responded that they focus on the nonparticipants. The leaders of urban churches were more likely to focus on the 20% that participate the most than leaders of rural churches (39.3% vs. 8.0%). Also, most leaders (76%) say that participation has decreased in recent years.

Jordan Taylor, University of Memphis

Digital Health Application Enhances Patient Engagement in Health Behaviors

Abstract: Church Health in Shelby County, TN partnered with Well Dot, Inc. to evaluate factors associated with adoption of, and engagement in, a digital health platform designed to advance member health (the Well App). The purpose of the study was to gauge: (i) adoption and acceptance of the digital health application, (ii) barriers to uptake of a digital health application, and (iii) the impact of the use of the Well App for health improvement among established Church Health patients who have been identified as being at increased cardiovascular risk. The Well App uses an unprecedented combination of personalized guidance, motivation and rewards paired with concierge support from Well Guides to engage members in the advancement of their health. The approach is designed to help each member identify and pursue opportunities to improve their health. The platform covers the full spectrum of healthcare needs, including prevention and wellness, health education, chronic disease and behavioral health management, medication support and healthcare system navigation. Such an approach is novel among this population, that is primarily underserved and underrepresented Type 2 Diabetes and Hypertension patients. Hypertension and Type 2 Diabetes pose significant threats to the population, particularly in Shelby County. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States, leading to deaths in 1 out every 4 people. In Shelby County there is a higher-than-average rate of heart disease compared to the US (177 vs. 134) per 100,000 people.

Sandra Terneus, Tennessee Tech University

College Students’ Dating Trends: An Alternative to Hookups

Abstract: The sample of this research included undergraduate college students enrolled in an educational psychology course (N=75) representing predominately white, female (N=57) and heterosexual orientation. This sample was given a survey which addressed dating patterns, and results revealed that this sample opposed hookup behavior due to its promotion of detrimental outcomes, and therefore, the use of chaperones, a cultural tradition, was actively being used on this college campus. The college students identified the dating process of beginning with a predate accompanied by chaperones, and identified the roles of the chaperones; heterosexuals and LGBT individuals have served as chaperones. In addition, results from the survey also indicated a positive life orientation, mild to moderate levels of anxiety, low depression, and high religiosity practices.

Felisha Younkin, Cedarville University

Jacob Littleton, Cedarville University

Stacey Barrett, Cedarville University no file

Nicole Nugent, Cedarville University

Marcus Hernandez, Cedarville University

Hannah Palmer, Cedarville University

Qualitative Perspective of Pastoral Care Through the COVID-19 Pandemic

Abstract: In the present qualitative, phenomenological study, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 8 lead pastors in the rural Midwest. These participants, all male, were between 31 and 72 years old (M=53) with church sizes ranging from 100 to 900 (M=293). They all led their church congregations through the COVID-19 pandemic. Churches represented a variety of denominations including Baptist, Presbyterian, Church of Christ, and Christian and Missionary Alliance (CMA). Coding and thematic analysis revealed the following themes: (1) Pastors had to find new and effective ways to care for their congregants during this unique and challenging time and (2) Pastors and congregants alike suffered with respect to well-being and loneliness due to a breach in connections within the church body. This study provides insight on the effects of crises on religious congregants and the pastors’ management and care during these difficult times.

Xiao Zhou, Fudan University

Liu Tang, Fudan University

The Transformation of Media Economy Paradigm Based on Time Value and Decentralization

Abstract: This article starts from the fundamental problems of media economics and sets the value goal. We make full use of the unified scale of time value by discussing the six general value attributes that are affected by time value. We believe that media economics can take full advantage of time-value scales and a decentralized approach to the in-depth study of more abstract and concrete economic structure issues. Therefore, we discussed the paradigm innovation of media economics research and found that the new media economy with ‘Internet+’ as the underlying logic and main structure essentially allocates the power of information production and dissemination to every socially active individual. The ultimate goal is to achieve a ‘highly personalized custom economy’. The research method of media economics will inevitably shift from quantitative analysis around causality to network analysis focusing on correlation.